Crisis (hostage) negotiation: current strategies and issues in high-risk conflict resolution
Gregory Vecchi, Vincent Van Hasselt, Stephen Romano 2005. (View Paper → )
This paper reviews three primary components of crisis negotiation: (1) the incorporation of crisis management and intervention in current broad-spectrum approaches to crisis negotiation; (2) the Behavioral Change Stairway Model (BCSM), constructed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Crisis Negotiation Unit (CNU), that provides a systematic, multistep process directed toward peaceful, nonlethal resolution of critical incidents; and (3) role-playing as a vital tool in the assessment and training of crisis negotiation skills. Advancements and limitations in the field of crisis negotiation are highlighted; suggestions for directions that future work in this area might take are offered.
This paper proposed the Behavioural Change Stairway model. If you want to influence somebodies behaviour, you have to move through the following steps:
Active listening → Empathy → Rapport → Influence → Behavioural Change
It also includes actionable things you can do (mirroring, paraphrasing, summarising, effective pauses, minimal encouragers, open ended questions).